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Figure 12. Oak cynipid parasitoids: (a) Mesopolopus sp. , (b) Megastigmus sp. , (c) Eupelmus sp. Photographs by Emilie P.

Demard, College of Florida. Although oak cynipid parasitoids offer likely for biological regulate, the mismatch involving the emergence of native parasitoids and Dryocosmus kuriphilus effects in very low assault costs (concerning . 5 and one. six%) in contrast to the properly-synchronized parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Aebi et al. Also, even further research on the taxonomy and biology of these parasitoids is needed to boost our knowledge of interactions concerning the invasive gall wasp, the released parasitoid, and the native parasitoids. In fact, numerous species had been identified as opponents or facultative hyperparasitoids (parasitoid performing possibly as a key parasitoid or a secondary parasitoid).

For instance, Eurytoma brunniventris is recognised to be polyphagous and to feed on gall tissues, and Eupelmus urozonus may well be a facultative hyperparasitoid (Quacchia et al. The two were noticed to have an vital function in the hold off in the inhabitants raise of the released Torymus sinensis in some areas of Japan (Murakami et al.

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Cooper and Riesk (2011) also recorded Ormyrus labotus , which is a native parasitoid of oak galling cynipids in the United states and a hyperparasitoid of Torymus sinensis . Selected References (Back to Top rated)Aebi A, Schönrogge K, Melika G, Alma A, Bosio G, Quacchia A, Picciau L, Abe Y, Moriya S, Yara K, Seljak G, Stone GN. Parasitoid recruitment to the globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus . p. In: Ozaki K, Yukawa J, Ohgushi T, Price PW (Editor). Ecology and Evolution of Galling Arthropods and Their Associates.

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Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan. Aebi A, Schönrogge K, Melika G, Quacchia A, Alma A, Stone GN. Indigenous and launched parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus .

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EPPO Bulleti.

) sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology thirty: 277-284. Panzavolta T, Bernardo U, Bracalini M, Cascone P, Croci F, Gebiola M, Iodice L, Tiberi R, Guerrieri E. Indigenous parasitoids connected with Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Tuscany, Italy. ResearchGate sixty six: 195-201.

Payne JA. Oriental chestnut gall wasp: New nut pest in North The usa. p. In: Macdonald WL, Cech FC, Luchok J, Smith C (editor). Proceedings of the American Chestnut Symposium.

West Virginia University Press, Morgantown. Quacchia A, Ferracini C, Nicholls JA, Piazza E, Saladini MA, Tota F, Melika G, Alma A. Chalcid parasitoid group affiliated with the invading pest Dryocosmus kuriphilus in north-western Italy. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6: 114-123. Quacchia A, Moriya S, Bosio G, Scapin I, Alma A.

Rearing, launch and settlement prospect in Italy of Torymus sinensis , the biological command agent of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus . BioControl fifty three: 829-839. Radocz L, Melika G, Kovács G, Szilágyi A, Nagy M. Asian sweet chestnut gallwasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cypnidae): first history for Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology (on the web first): art. 157201.

Rieske LK. Results of an unique gallmaker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus , on chestnut in the United states of america: A historical account. EPPO Bulletin 37: 172-174. Stone GN, Schonrogge K, Atkinson RJ, Bellido D, Pujade-Villar J. The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annual Critique of Entomology forty seven: 633-668. Turchetti T, Addario E, Maresi G. Interazioni tra cinipide galligeno e cancro della corteccia: Una nuova criticita per il castagno. Forest 7: 252-258. Yara K. Interaction amongst Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and T. beneficus , launched and indigenous parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Japan Agricultural Investigation Quarterly forty eight: 35-40. Zhang Z. Research strategies on the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in China.

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